UNICODE

 

[UNICODE]

මුල් පිටුව | බොදු පුවත් | කතුවැකිය | බෞද්ධ දර්ශනය | විශේෂාංග | වෙහෙර විහාර | ඉංග්‍රිසි ලිපි | පෙර කලාප | දායකත්ව මුදල් |

 

 The practice of  Metta

- The loving kindness

Ven. C. Nyanasatta Thera

A Buddhist lawyer is often constrained to bringing about reconciliation between parties that cannot afford the costs of litigation or for some other reason should abstain from it. How to do it best in the true Buddhist way we can learn from the following exposition based on the Visuddhi Magga, the Path of Purification. The person who tries to bring about peace and amity between enemies must himself be acquainted with the meditation of recollection of Loving-kindness, and this type of recollection is one of the easiest to learn, for even without any knowledge of Pali or the Buddhist Scripture, any one may easily learn how to practise metta.

A person who wants to develop this meditation on loving-kindness, should first of all find the most convenient time and place for this practice. The best time will be when there is no one near to disturb him, and the best place will be an empty room or the home shrine room at a time when no one is likely to enter it. One must be free from fatigue at the time of meditation; and all disturbing thoughts about work and study must be banished, hence the evening, after a walk and some outdoor exercise, and not immediately after a heavy meal, will be the most convenient time. The room or place where the meditation is being developed should be neat and quite free of noise or anything likely to disturb or irritate, and one must have a feeling of lightness and cleanness, and be free from all worries and other impediments to meditation. Those who feel to tired in the evening but fresh in the morning may try the meditation then, at a time when their mind most inclines towards such practice.

Being free from any dizziness and restlessness, one should seat oneself comfortably on a well prepared seat in a secluded place. A lay Buddhist will of course first take the refuge, recite the five precepts, perhaps recite the recollection of the Buddha-Dhamma-Sangha, and only then start with the meditation proper, the recollection of Metta. The meditator should first review the danger in hate and the advantage in patience, because hate has to be abandoned and patience attained in the development of this meditation subject, and one cannot abandon unseen dangers and attain unknown advantages.

Obsessed by hate

The danger in hate should be seen in accordance with the discourses of the Enlightened One as this: When a man hates, is a prey to hate and his mind is obsessed by hate, he kills living beings and does many other unbecoming things. The advantage in patience should be understood according to such passages as these:

No higher rule, the Buddha say, than patience,

And no nibbana higher than forbearance,

Patience in force, in strong array;

Tis then I call him brahman;

No greater thing exists than patience.

Thereupon the meditator should embark upon the development of loving-kindness for the purpose of secluding the mind from hate seen as a danger and introducing it to patience known as advantage. But first of all the beginner must know that some persons are of the wrong sort at the very beginning, and that loving-kindness should be developed towards certain kinds of person and not towards certain other kinds at first. Loving-kindness should not be developed at first towards an antipathetic person, a very dearly loved friend, a neutral person and a hostile person. Also it should not be developed specially towards the opposite sex, or towards a dead person.

First of all metta should be developed only towards oneself, doing it repeatedly thus: May I be happy and free from suffering or May I keep myself free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety and live happily. This is only a preliminary exercise, not mettabhavana proper. Developing loving-kindness to oneself makes one conscious that all beings want happiness, and hence should not be harmed, therefore one should first, as an example pervade himself with loving-kindness.

Next after that, in order to proceed easily, the student should develop metta towards a venerable person like his parent, spiritual teacher or ones instructor in the Dhamma. He can now recollect such gifts, kind words and other acts of kindness as inspire respect and reverence met with in a teacher or instructor in the Dhamma developing loving-kindness towards him in the way beginning May this good man be happy and free from suffering. With such a person taken for meditation one attains quick progress. If one has not such a respected Dhamma Teacher, one may choose any person from ones circle of acquaintances who inspires trust and veneration.

Meditation

When one has become proficient in the practice of loving-kindness towards a venerable and respected person and does not rest content with just that much and wants to breakdown the barriers, he should, next after the meditation on ones teacher, develop loving-kindness towards a very dearly loved friend or perhaps ones child or pupil, using the same formula May this dear one be happy and free from suffering. If one has advanced thus far and does not rest content with that much, one should immediately after ones meditation on the beloved person take a neutral person treated now for purposes of meditation as a very dearly loved friend. After this one should develop metta towards a hostile person considering him as if he were neutral. While doing so,one should make ones mind malleable and wieldy in each instance before passing on to the next.

But if the meditator has no enemy, or he is of the type of a great man who does not perceive another as an enemy even when the other does him harm, he should not interest himself as follows: Now that my consciousness of loving-kindness has become wieldy towards a neutral person, I shall apply it to a hostile one. Rather it was about one who actually has an enemy that it was said above that he should develop loving-kindness towards a hostile person as neutral.

Getting rid of resentment

If resentment arises in him when he applies his mind to a hostile person because he remembers wrongs done by that person, he should get rid of the resentment by entering repeatedly into loving-kindness practice towards a venerable person, a dearly loved friend or a neutral person to whom he had been practising metta in the early stages of meditation and then, after one has emerged each time from such meditation, one should direct loving-kindness towards ones enemy.

But if resentment does not die out in spite of his efforts, then one should reflect upon the simile of the Saw with other similes of the Saw with other similes of that kind, and strive repeatedly to leave resentment far behind. He should admonish himself in this way: Now, you who get angry, has not the Blessed One said this, Bhikkhus, even if bandits brutally severed limb from limb with a two handled saw, he who entertained hate in his heart on that account would not be one who carried out my teaching.

Further one may reflect upon the following discourse of the Enlightened One: Monks, there are seven things gratifying and helpful to an enemy that happen to one who is angry, whether woman or man. What seven? An enemy wishes thus for his enemy Let him be ugly. Why is that? An enemy does not delight in an enemys beauty. Now this angry person is a prey to anger, ruled by anger; though well bathed, well anointed with hair and beard trimmed and clothed in white, yet he is ugly, being a prey to anger. This is the first thing gratifying and helpful to an enemy that befalls one who is angry, whether woman or man. Furthermore, an enemy wishes thus for his enemy, Let him lie in pain.... Let him have no good fortune... Let him not be famous... Let him have no friends...Let him not be wealthy...Let him after death be born in a state of woe, in a hell, not in a heaven. Why is that? An enemy does not delight in an enemys going to a happy destiny. Now this angry person is a prey to anger, ruled by anger; he misconducts himself in body, speech and mind. Misconducting himself thus in body, speech and mind, on the break up of his body, speech and mind, on the break up of his body, after death, he reappears in a state of loss, in an unhappy destiny, in perdition, in hell being prey to anger.

Resentment

If the meditators resentment subsides when he strives and makes effort in this way, it is good. If not, he should removed irritation by remembering some good side his enemys character, some controlled and purified state in that person which inspires confidence when remembered. For one person may be controlled in his bodily behaviour with his control in doing an extensive course of duty known to all, though his verbal and mental behaviour are not controlled. Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his bodily behaviour remembered.

Another may be controlled in his verbal behaviour and his control known to all. He may naturally be clever at welcoming kindly, easy to talk with, congenial, open-countenanced, deferential. in speech and he may expound the Dhamma with well-rounded phrases and details, though his bodily and mental behaviour are not controlled. Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his verbal behaviour remembered.

Another may be controlled in his mental behaviour, and his control in worshipping at shrines evident to all. For when one who is uncontrolled in mind pays homage at a shrine or at an Enlightenment Tree or to Elders, he does not do so carefully, and he sits in the Dhamma preaching hall with mind astray or nodding, while one whose mind is controlled pays homage carefully and deliberately, listens to the Dhamma attentively, remembering it, and evincing the confidence in his mind through his body or his speech. So another may be only controlled in his mental behaviour, though his bodily and verbal behaviour are not controlled.

Then the latter should be ignored and the control in his mental behaviour remembered. But there may be another in whom not one of these three things is controlled. Then compassion for that person should be aroused thus: Though he is going about in the human world now, nevertheless after a certain number of days he will find himself in one of the many hells. Thus resentment and irritation subsides also through compassion. In yet another all three, namely body, speech and mind may be controlled. Then the meditator can remember any of the three in that person, whichever he likes; for the development of loving-kindness towards such a person is easy.

But if resentments still does not subside when the student admonishes himself thus, then he should review the fact that he himself and the other are owners of their deeds or karma. Herein he should first review this in himself thus: Now what is the point of your getting angry with him? Will not this karma of yours that has anger as its source lead to your own harm? For you are the owner of your deeds, heir of your deeds, having deeds as your refuge; you will become the heir of whatever deeds you do. And this is not the kind of deed to bring you to enlightenment or rebirth as a great man or god, but rather this is the kind of deed to lead you to your downfall and to the manifold suffering in the hell. By doing this you are like a man who wants to hit another and picks up a burning ember or excrement in his hand and so first burns himself or makes himself stink.

Having reviewed ownership of deeds in himself in this way, he should review it in the other also; And what is the point of his getting angry with you? Will it not lead to his own harm? For he is the owner of his deeds, heir of his deeds.... and he will become the heir of whatever deeds he does. And this is not the kind of deed to bring him to enlightenment or rebirth as a great man or god, but rather this is the kind of deed to lead to his downfall and to the manifold suffering in the hell. By doing this he is like a man who wants to throw dust at another against the wind and only covers himself with it.

Resentment also subsides if one reviews the patience of the Master when he was a Bodhisatta, an aspirant to enlightenment: - he proved his patience and forgiveness in the various lives depicted in the Birth Stories, as for instance when as King Silvant, he rather allowed his kingdom to be captured by an enemy than to fight him, and when he was installed in his former palace, he forgave the enemy and they became friends for the rest of life. In the Khantivada Jataka he is shown patient and forgiving to his torturers even when mutilated; and in the Dhammapala Jataka, even as a child, he shows his patience and forgiveness to his murderers. Even while living in the animal kingdom, the Bodhisatta was a model of patience and forgiveness; then why should not we, the Buddhas followers, learn this virtue of bearing and forbearing by the practice of metta? The wars, murders and homicides in the world are due to the lack of this virtue among men, hence a start ought to be made by us right now.

In order to be able to quench ones thoughts of resentment, the meditator should review the advantages of loving-kindness thus: Now you who call yourself a Buddhist, has it not been said by the Blessed One as follows: When the mind-deliverance of loving-kindness is cultivated, developed, much practised, made the vehicle, made the foundation, established, consolidated, and properly undertaken, eleven blessings can be expected. What eleven? A man sleeps in comfort, wakes in comfort, and dreams no evil dreams, he is dear to human beings, he is dear to non-human beings, deities guard him, fire and poison and weapons do not affect him, his mind is easily concentrated, the expression of his face is serene, he dies unconfused, if he penetrates no higher he will be born in the Brahma World. If you do not stop this thought of resentment, you will be denied these advantages. If the meditator is still unable to stop the thought of resentment in this way, he should try to resolve the enemy into elements thus: When you are angry with the man, what is it you are angry with? Is it the head hairs you are angry with? or body hairs? or nails? .... or is it the various impurities in the body you are angry with? Or is it the earth element in the hairs you are angry with? Or is it the earth element in the other parts of the body you are angry with? Or the water element? Or the fire element? Or is it the wind element you are angry with? Or among the five aggregates and other elements of being, is it the materiality or the feeling or perception, mental formations or consciousness you are angry with? Or are you angry with his eyes or ears or any other sense organ or his mind?

If one cannot resolve ones enemy into elements one should try the giving of a gift or accepting a gift from ones adversary, and then all resentment is sure to subside. As soon as the meditator can develop a thought of amity even towards his enemy, treating him as friendly-neutral, he may break down all the barriers in his discrimination between beings, and practise metta to all in all directions, thinking that all beings living in the eastern quarter should be happy and free from all suffering. Then he thinks of the beings living in the western quarter ... in the south..... north.... in the intermediate points of the compass, above and below, without discriminating between beings as friends or neutral, he dwells intent upon one direction with his heart endued with loving-kindness, everywhere and equally he dwells pervading the entire world with his heart endued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, measureless, free from enmity and free from affliction. It is this meditator who develops the mind-deliverance of loving kindness thus that obtain the eleven advantages, that is to say he sleeps in comfort, wakes in comfort, and dreams no evil dreams, he is dear to human beings, he is dear to non-human beings, deities guard him, fire and poison and weapons do not affect him, his mind is easily concentrated, the expression of his face is serene, he dies unconfused, and if he does not attain nibbana in this very life he will be reborn in the Brahma World. Nothing becomes in a lawyer and a judge more than this quality of amity and impartiality even among contending parties, hence, a Law Student is in need of the practice of metta.

(Courtesy: Law College Buddhist Annual - 1958)

බිනර පුර අටවක

බිනර පුර අටවක පෝය
සැප්තැම්බර් 19 වන දා බදාදා පුර්වභාග 09.29 ට ලබයි. 20 වන දා බ‍්‍රහස්පතින්දා  පූර්වභාග 10.55 දක්වා පෝය පවතී. සිල් සමාදන්වීම සැප්තැම්බර් 19 වන දා බදාදා ය.

මී ළඟ පෝය සැප්තැම්බර්
26 වන දා බදාදා ය.


පොහෝ දින දර්ශනය

First Quarterපුර අටවක

සැප්තැම්බර් 19

Full Moonපසෙලාස්වක

සැප්තැම්බර් 26

Second Quarterඅව අටවක

ඔක්තෝම්බර් 03

New Moonඅමාවක

ඔක්තෝම්බර් 10

මුල් පිටුව | බොදු පුවත් | කතුවැකිය | බෞද්ධ දර්ශනය | විශේෂාංග | වෙහෙර විහාර | ඉංග්‍රිසි ලිපි | පෙර කලාප | දායකත්ව මුදල් |

© 2000 - 2007 ලංකාවේ සීමාසහිත එක්සත් ප‍්‍රවෘත්ති පත්‍ර සමාගම
සියළුම හිමිකම් ඇවිරිණි.

අදහස් හා යෝජනා: [email protected]