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මුල් පිටුව | බොදු පුවත් | කතුවැකිය | බෞද්ධ දර්ශනය | විශේෂාංග | වෙහෙර විහාර | ඉංග්‍රිසි ලිපි | පෙර කලාප | දායකත්ව මුදල් |

 

The Buddha explains the Noble Eightfold Path

(In Benares/ Varanasi, Saranath)

Since time immemorial Indian religious persuasions were dependent on Scriptal Authoritarianism (Veda pramamanayam) based in the earliest times on Rg Veda datable to 1500 - 900 BC, with 1028 stanzas in Sanskrit, to be followed by the Arya nobles and chanting them exclusively the duty of the Brahamin caste members, and the brahmin recluses considered as inter-mediaries between man and god.

Around two centuries later Yajur Veda to be chanted by Advaru brahamins who exert themselves in the performances of oblations (yaga) to gods, and Sama and Athrvan Veda too were composed giving a different form of conducting oblations. Thereafter emerged the Vedic literary work a large composition, Brahmana, and its commentaries known as Aranyaka and Upanisadhs. These religious persuasions created a belief in a God - creator (Katruvada), Soul - Theory (Atmavada) Holu-Dip (Snane-dharmeccha) Self-mortification to overcome evil (Santaparambha Papahanya) and animism.

This animistic oblations were performed in the belief that the dead relatives have been reborn as spirits and their permanent abodes were large Peepal trees of no economic value and in green roves. These sites were called cetiya meaning wish, in that beseeching these spirits to redeem the faithfuls from external and internal distress. This word cetiya came to be used by the Buddhists as cetiya or Chaitya.

The Buddha in his long walks, of 45 years, rested himself at such Vedic cetiyas too, as recorded in the Digha Nikaya.

The Indian Vedic life circle had four stages, that was open only to kshatriyas, rulers and noble warriors and brahamins.

These four stages were brahmacariya (studentship), gruhastha (household life, married and engaged in a an employment), vanapravastha (entry to forests or meditative life, having renounced permanently household life and finally sannyasi (wandering ascetic without any fixed abode.

Additionally there were followers of pre Buddhistic Janism, founded by Niganthanathaputta the 24th Thirankara, naked ascetic who through self mortification tried to redeem their jiva (life) from ajiva (sensual pleasures etc).

This was the society in which the Buddha was born as Prince Siddhartha at Kapilavastu as the son of Sakyan ruler. Suddhodana and his queen Maha Maya Devi in the 6th century BC (563 BC).

Prince Siddhartha followed the first two stages of bramachariya and gruhastha and at the age of 29, entered upon Vanapravastha having renounced worldly life. As this was the accepted tradition there was no opposition to it from any quarters of his or his wifes family circles.

The general acceptance, Prince Siddhartha, renounced worldly life having seen an old man, sick man, a corpse, and a recluse is not tenable. These circumstances are stated to be constant for all Bodhisatvas in their last existence (Digha Nikaya 14). But it is only of the former Buddha Vipassi (Digha Nikaya 14 not of the Buddha Gotama, that the stiry of the four messengers - the old man, the sick man the corpse, and the monk is told in the Tripitaka itself.

Later accounts ascribe this to the Buddha too. Buddha Gotama as Bodhisatva was in the pursuit of Buddhahood, after he met the Dipankara Buddha many aeons ago.

Hence there is no need for four messengers to renounce worldly life.

Amidst these Vedic rites and rituals, the Buddha having attained supra-mundane attainment of wisdom, preached his first sermon, Dhammacakkapavatta-Sutta to his former erstwhile recluses, Kondanna, Bhaddhiya, Vappa, Mahanama and Assaji at the Deer Park, Isipatana Varanasi. This was the teaching on which the subsequent teachings were based on devotees to attain the supreme bliss of deathlessness.

The Buddha discoursed the four Noble Truths, namely, the Truth of Suffering; the Truth of the Origin of Suffering; the Truth of Cessation of Suffering and the Truth of the Way.

The Truth of the Way is embodied in the Noble Eightfold Path. Namely, Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Concentration. Presently many writers, speakers and even monks, try to create their own idioms, nuances, similes and metaphors to explain each one of these. Therefore, this effort is to record what the Buddha said about each of these, with reference to the Digha Nikaya Majjhima Nikaya, Samyutta Nikaya and Anguttara Nikaya.

What is right speech? As explained by the Buddha, it is abstaining from lying, slander, abuse, and gossip; this is called right speech (Samyutta Nikaya 45:8 Digha Nikaya 22)

Therefore, those who pose as saviours of Buddhism and abuse other religions, both verbally and in writing if enmity continues in them, they would be born as venomous serpents, with no opportunity to be born a human being again. Right Action, is dealt as follows, What is right action? Abstention from killing living beings, stealing, misconduct in sensual desires; this is called right action (Samyutta nikaya 45:8 Digha Nikaya 22) Right Effort is elaborated as, What is right effort? Here a bhikkhu awakens desire for the non-arising of unrisen evil unwholesome states, for which he makes efforts, arouses energy, exerts his mind and endeavours.

He awakens desire for the abandoning of arisen evil unwholesome states, for which he makes efforts.... He awakens desire for the arising of unrisen wholesome states, for which he makes efforts.... He awakens desire for the continuance, non-corruption, strengthening, maintenance in being, and perfecting, of arisen wholesome states, for which he makes efforts, arouses energy, exerts his mind, and endeavours; this is called right effort (Samyutta Nikaya 45:8, Digha Nikaya 22).

Though addressed to bhikkhus, this is valid and could be easily perfected by Upasaka and Upasika.

To be Continued next week

  මැදින් පුර පසළොස්වක පෝය

   මැදින් පුර පසළොස්වක පෝය මාර්තු 20 වැනිදා බ්‍රහස්පතින්දා අපර භාග 11.25 ට ලබයි.
22 වන දා සෙනසුරාදා පූර්ව භාග 12.10 දක්වා පෝය පවතී.
සිල් සමාදන්වීම මාර්තු 21 වන සිකුරාදා ය.

මීළඟ පෝය මාර්තු 29 වන දාය.


පොහෝ දින දර්ශනය

Full Moonපසෙලාස්වක

මාර්තු 21

Second Quarterඅව අටවක

මාර්තු 29

New Moonඅමාවක

අපේ‍්‍රල් 05

First Quarterපුර අටවක

අප්‍රේල් 12

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